According to Willi Apel, "symphony", in a broader sense, is a sonata for orchestra. One could say that Symphony's modern history begins with the first Haydn's symphony in 1759, however there had been similar works with the same title during the transition from Barock to classical period (1725-
The greek word " symphonia " (symphonia = consonance) was used during the Middle Ages to distinguish it from " diaphonia " (diaphonia = dissonance). ( Casiodorus; Gebert, Scriptores eccl. de mus. sacr, i16b. Also Cassiodorus, De Artibus Ac Disciplinis Liberalium Litterarum: Caput quintum, De musica) . Later in the Middle Ages the term was used to describe various instruments, especially those who could produce more than one sound simultaneously. During the period 1155-
The term "symphony" in the sense of "sounding together" first appeared in the 16th and 17th century in the titles of some works of:
Giovanni Gabrieli (Sacrae symphoniae and symphoniae sacre, liber secundus: 1597, 1615) ,
Adriano Banchieri (Eclesiastiche sinfonie , dette canzoni in aria francese, per sonare, et cantare, op. 16: 1607)
Lodovico Grossi (da Viadana's Sinfonie musicali, op. 18: 1610)
Heinrich Schütz (Symphoniae sacrae, op. 6, and Symphoniarum sacrarum secunda pars , op. 10: 1629 and 1647 respectively).
During the 17th century the term was used to identify different kinds of composition, such as opera, sonata and concerto. By the 18th century the "sinfonia avanti l' opera ", known as "Italian overture" had a standardized structure: fast-
The "Italian" style of symphony became a standard three-
Mozart Haydn replaced the three-
According to Willi Apel, the classical symphony usually consists of four movements
1. Allegro (sometimes with a slow introduction)
2. slow movement (such as Adagio)
3.minuet and trio (sometimes omitted)
4.A brisk and virtuoso finale
The first and last movements sometimes are written in "sonata form". The last movement occasionally is a rondo or a sonata .
Mozart and Haydn also perfected some of the technical elements of the symphony , such as introductory presentation of the idea and the final material with discrete manner, growth pattern, the crystallization of harmony, of transitions, orchestration etc.
Beethoven's symphonies stand in the transition from classicism to romanticism. His first symphony was composed between 1799-
Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major, BWV 1048,
is an example of Ripieno concert
Giovanni Battista Sammartini -
Ludwig van Beethoven -