Music in History

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Italy

Renaissance_16th c
 


16th century. Music in Italy

Venetian  school
Venetian school was a group of composers working in Venice during 16th century.


Representatives
Andrian Wilaert (1490-1562) and his students: Andrea Gabrielli (1532-1586), Cipriano de Rore ( 1516-1565). Also,  Giovanni Gabrielli (c.1554/1557-1612), Giovani Croce( circa 1560-1609), Jacques Buus ( church organist. Died in 1565) , Annibale Padonavo ( church organist:1527-1575), Claudio Merulo (1533-1604) Nicola Vicentino ( music theorist: 1511-1572)  Gioseffo Zarlino ( music theorist: 1517-1590).
Today, Venetian school members are well known for their innovations concerning musical techniques. They paved the way for music development of 17th century, along with Camerata fiorentina.  
Contributions in  history of music
While the contemporary "Roman school" represented a high point of a development concerning polyphonic music, Venetian school is very important for its innovations and progressive tendencies. Freer use of modulations and chromaticism by Andrea Willaert as well as experiments concerning intervals less than a semitone by NIcola Vicentino (using an instrument called archicembalo) were among other innovations introduced. Musicians of Venetian School made a use of equal temperament at an extent. Zarlino investigated the "just intonation" tuning.
However, the most important of all  was the development of the Venetian music  style  by  Giovanni Gabrielli: He was called ¨father of orchestration¨ because of  polychoral style, echo effects and  progressive use of  instruments. The style of the school of Venice  spread  to other countries, especially in Germany.  German representatives: Hieronymus Praetorius (1560-1629), Hans Leo Hassler (1564-1612), Michael Praetorius (1571-1621)

polychoral style
Type of music involving  singing of  two or more  choirs in alternation (you tube & text ). This  style  differs from the dominant (Roman)  polyphonic renaissance  music. Polychoral style was  the leading stream  to the development of what we know today  as the "Baroque style". Often  the term " cori spezzati" is  used  to refer to polychoral style.

                                     Giovanni Gabrieli Canzona XIII

Andrian Wilaert ( 1490-1562)
Adrian Willaert was a Renaissance composer and founder of the school of Venice. He  is one of composers who emigrated from the north and spread the franco flemish musical style to Italy .
According to Gioseffo Zarlino, Willaert invented  the antiphonal  style  from which  the Venice polychoral style was developed.
This style was  also in practise during  17th century.  WIlaert was a teacher of Gioseffo Zarlino, Andrea Gabrielli, Orlando di Lasso. All formed the core of the school of Venice, with one exception:  Orlando di Lasso.







πηγές
http://www.adriaenwillaert.be/talen/taal_engels.html

                                Adriaan Willaert: 'O magnum mysterium'

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