18th century: 1750-
It is the Era of the Enlightenment (ca. 1700-
What we now call "public opinion" has already been emerged. Because of the publication of the press the lower social Groups can read the news frequently .They discuss about politics. They are interested in art, they seek social and economic changes.
18th century is the era of travel writers. A lot of young men from the upper social groups were motivated by the ideals of the ancient world and began travelling abroad ( mainly in Greece and Italy).
This term defines a musical stream that dominated Western Europe during the mid-
Rococo and Neoclassicism
The term «rococo» refers to the art movement and style that was developed in the 18th century, influencing almost all the arts: painting, sculpture, literature, music, theater, etc.
This period is also called 'late Baroque'. Rococo emerged as a reaction to the previous strict symmetry of the Baroque style. it was developed firstly in France, mainly in the palace of Versailles during the reign of King Louis XV, in the early 18th century. Shortly after it spread to the rest of Europe (mainly in Germany, Italy and Austria). During the 1760s it was displaced by Neoclassicism, the new dominant trend in art. An important boost in power and influence of neoclassicism was given by the very important finds of the excavations at Pompeii. Excavations had begun in 1748. It was the first systematic excavations in the history of the science of archeology. Classical period of music (18th century)
Classical Period of music (18th century)
Regarding music as an entertainment, it was no longer a privilege of the nobles . The orchestral music was spread widely and became popular even in lower social groups.
Professional musicians have started to create a fortune . Music composers become independent from the church and court, for first time in history. Some historians believe that W.A. Mozart was one of the first who tried this, to be an independent professional.
Sonata and opera have been shaped in their forms. Piano takes the place of the harpsichord. The structure of modern (for its time) symphony orchestra has been stabilized.
During 1742, one of the first modern (for its time) symphony orchestras was established by Johann Stamitz at the court of Duke Karl Theodor in Manheim. The orchestra consisted of 50 musicians and virtuosos.
Nowadays, W A Mozart and J. Haydn are considered to be the great representatives of the Enlightenment, in the field of music. The Mozart's opera "The Magic Flute" is a "perfect representation of enlightenment."
3. BBC history