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Renaissance_16th c
 

Renaissance 16th Century


Historical frame

During 16th century, a religious and an economic movement of great importance were to be  developed in Europe .


mercantilism

mercantilism is the economic doctrine according to which the control of international trade by the government is of the highest importance for ensuring the military security of the country.  A positive trade balance (exports have to be more than imports) is required.
Mercantilism dominated European economic policy during the 16th to the 18th century and was the cause of frequent wars in Europe that season and gave incentives to colonialism. He was the ancestor of Capitalism.
Two of the most important critics of mercantilism was John Locke (17th century) and  Adam Smith (18th century).


                                            Queen Elizabeth: 1558-1603




                                  Thomas Tallis - Miserere Nostri (video)


The Protestant Reformation

The protestant  Reformation, was a Christian movement of the 16th century against the Catholic Church. The creation of Protestantism, as the third major branch of Christianity (Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Protestantism) was a very important  consequence of that movement.
Reformation is  considered a  corner stone in regard with  the  development of international law. The idea of Christian unity through a single doctrine ended  through reformation and  through the decline of feudalism. A "global society"  was to be formed, consisting  of hegemonies which were now independent states-hegemonies, legally equal. Because of this, a  new need  arose concerning  legal rules to govern the relationship between the new members  

Protestantism- Calvinism
Protestantism is one of the largest dogmas of Christianity. It  appeared in Germany as a movement (reformation) during 16th century under the leadership of  Martin Luther (1483-1546).  Martin Luther  was convinced that the salvation of the soul was only the result of Divine Grace and faith, instead of  the result of the good acts. For this reason he came into conflict with the Catholic Church, which was giving /selling indulgences for remission of sins. Protestantism found particular resonance not only  in Germany, but also in other countries, mainly of northern Europe.

Soon enough, Protestantism failed to remain a single doctrine. several variants were created, from which the most important is that of  Switzerland (Zwingli) and Calvinism (Calvin).

                                                     Martin Luther



                                          Chorale lied: Ein feste burg (video)

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