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Barock: 1600- 1750

17th Century: Overview

The term "Scientific Revolution"  refers  to the period during which new ideas and knowledge on physics, astronomy, biology, chemistry and medicine changed perceptions of Middle Ages about  nature, cosmos and human beings. It  paved the way to modern science. "Scientific Revolution began in Europe during  the end of the Renaissance (late 16th cent.) and it continued until the late 18th century (Enlightenment).

some important books were printing  in 1543 , at the beginning of the scientific revolution . a) "De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium" (on the Revolutions of  the Heavily Spheres)  written by   Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543). The book offered an alternative model of the universe to Ptolemy's geocentric system, which had been widely accepted since ancient times.  b) " De humani corporis fabrica libri septem" (on the fabric of the human body in seven books) written by Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564). It presented  a careful  examination of the organs and the whole structure of human body.

some of the great scientists  of that  and events of that period  are mentioned below.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642).
Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science". His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments.

Johanes Kepler (1571-1630)
A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution.  He is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.

Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
He is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics and shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of calculus.

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
He has been called "the father of modern philosophy", and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. His "Meditations on First Philosophy" continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes' influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system — allowing reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two-dimensional coordinate system (and conversely, shapes to be described as equations) — was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, crucial to the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis.
Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Leibniz, Spinoza and Descartes were all well versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well

Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)
He was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and astrologer. He is celebrated for his cosmological theories, which went even further than the then-novel Copernican model: while supporting heliocentrism, Bruno also correctly proposed that the Sun was just another star moving in space, and claimed as well that the universe contained an infinite number of inhabited worlds, identified as planets orbiting other stars.  Giordano Bruno  was  imprisoned and executed by Inquisition.

                                Kepler: Platonic solid model of solar system
                                     Mysterium Cosmographicum (1600)

                                    Monteverdi - Parlo Miser O Taccio


The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648)
It was a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe (primarily present-day Germany), involving most of the European countries. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history, and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history.

                                 Monteverdi Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria

Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology of Science and Discovery

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