17th Century: Overview
The term "Scientific Revolution" refers to the period during which new ideas and knowledge on physics, astronomy, biology, chemistry and medicine changed perceptions of Middle Ages about nature, cosmos and human beings. It paved the way to modern science. "Scientific Revolution began in Europe during the end of the Renaissance (late 16th cent.) and it continued until the late 18th century (Enlightenment).
some important books were printing in 1543 , at the beginning of the scientific revolution . a) "De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium" (on the Revolutions of the Heavily Spheres) written by Nicholas Copernicus (1473-
some of the great scientists of that and events of that period are mentioned below.
Galileo Galilei (1564-
Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science". His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments.
Johanes Kepler (1571-
A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution. He is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.
Isaac Newton (1643-
He is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics and shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of calculus.
Rene Descartes (1596-
He has been called "the father of modern philosophy", and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. His "Meditations on First Philosophy" continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes' influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system — allowing reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two-
Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-
Giordano Bruno (1548-
He was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and astrologer. He is celebrated for his cosmological theories, which went even further than the then-
The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648)
It was a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe (primarily present-
Monteverdi Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria