Haydn and Mozart
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composers Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Joseph Haydn were friends. Their relationship is not very well documented, but the evidence that they enjoyed each other's company and greatly respected each other's work is strong.
Haydn was already a famous composer when Mozart was a child. The two composers probably would not have had an opportunity to meet until after Mozart moved permanently to Vienna in 1781. Haydn was required to reside most of the time at the remote palace of Eszterháza in Hungary, where his employer and patron Prince Nikolaus Esterházy preferred to live. During the winter months, the Prince moved to the ancestral palace of his family in Eisenstadt, bringing Haydn with him. In these periods it was often feasible for Haydn to make brief visits to Vienna, about 40 km away. They might had been met each other on 1783 or 1784. Haydn would have been about 52 years old at the time, Mozart about 28.
Mozart in many ways did not need a mentor by the time he met Haydn; he was already rather successful and for most of his life up to then had been under the very active tutelage of his father Leopold. However, two aspects of the historical record suggest that Haydn did in some sense take Mozart under his wing and offer him advice. There is also the observation that, like many other younger musicians, Mozart addressed Haydn with the honorific term "Papa".
Mozart string quartet 16 in E flat major
dedicated to Haydn
Haydn's timpani writing
from wikipedia the free encyclopedia
Evolution of timpani in the 18th and 19th centuries
Until the late 18th century, written music for the timpani consisted of very simple rhythms with the drums usually only being played at major cadence points in the music. It was rare if the timpani were not playing along with the trumpets, and composers would often use the drums to add dramatic effect to trumpet notes and brass chords. However, this compositional pattern began to change as Austrian composer Joseph Haydn started utilizing the timpani in new ways. Haydn had learned the instrument, and performed on it in public, while he was a child attending boarding school in Hainburg, Austria. He remained interested in the timpani and new effects for them throughout his career.
In Haydn's Symphony No. 94, one of the earliest examples of the timpanist being required to change the pitch of a single drum within a symphonic movement is found. In measures 131–134 of the original autographed score, Haydn writes for a change in the timpani part from G and D to A and D. In order to allow for the timpanist to change the pitch of the drum, Haydn left plenty of measures rest in between the last G and the first A, and then did the same for when the drum is to be tuned back down to the G again.
Another example of Haydn's progressive writing for the timpani can be found by looking at his Symphony No. 100, also known as the "Military" Symphony. Previous to this symphony, it was a rarity for the timpani to play a solo passage in a symphonic work. In the "Military" symphony, Haydn separates the timpani from the trumpet and horn and actually writes out a solo passage for the timpanist. In measure 159 of the second movement, the entire orchestra drops out and only the timpani plays with two measures of sixteenth notes. Haydn uses a crescendo through these two measures to help build up intensity before the entire orchestra erupts into a loud, driving passage. In measure 122 of the final movement, Haydn again has the entire orchestra drop out and writes another measure solo for the timpani. Before this solo, Haydn has the orchestra playing quite softly which makes the timpani's loud entrance come as a surprise and helps to set up a loud entrance by the orchestra.
Haydn's use of writing specific solos for the timpani can also be seen in the very opening measure of his Symphony No. 103. This entire symphony begins with a timpani solo, and because of this, it has received the nickname of the "Drum Roll" symphony.
Symphony No. 100 in G Major 2nd Movement "Allegretto"
from wikipedia the free encyclopedia
Unlike Ludwig von Köchel's catalogue of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's works, or Otto Erich Deutsch's catalogue of Franz Schubert's works, which are both arranged chronologically by the date of composition, Hoboken's catalogue is arranged by form of work, like Wolfgang Schmieder's catalogue of Johann Sebastian Bach's works. All the symphonies, for example, are in category I, all string quartets are in category III, piano sonatas are in category XVI, and so on. See opus number