From 9th to 13th centrury
Most historians agree that the Medieval period is subdivided into a) early middle ages, circa 5th century -
In the end of the 11th century and during 12th century, the first universities were established in Italy, France, Spain, England, for the study of theology, law, engineering and medicine. These institutions derived from the older Christian Cathedrals and Monastic schools.
Three "medieval renaissances" are observed during Medieval period.
i) Carolingian Renaissance, 9th century. Literature and arts, which had been declined after the collapse of the Roman Empire in the 5th century, now flourish. In regards with music, two very important treatises appeared: Musica et Scolica enchiriadis. On the other hand the works of Boethius (6th century) now help scholars to study greek music. Innovations concerning liturgy took place. Musicians use Neumatic notation and gregorian chant has spread.
ii) Ottonian renaissance, named by the emperors Otto I, Otto, Otto III, took place in 10th century. During that period there was an economic prosperity in central and southern Europe. The architecture was influenced by Constantinople's architecture. Illuminated manuscripts were produced.
iii) Renaissance of the 12th century. Great political, social, economical changes took place in 12th century. According to some historians, these changes paved the way for later achievements, such as the artistic movement of the Italian Renaissance (15th century) and the scientific revolution in the 17th century. Classical Greek writers like Aristotle, were studied again and a study method called "scholasticism" was invented. Thomas Aquinas (1225-
During the 11th,12th and 13th century the Crusades took place. Roman-
There was a number of technological innovations. Regarding the arts, there was great interest in poetry, which was written mainly in Latin. The gap between religious and secular poetry became shorter. In the early 13th century the "Carmina Burana" were written by Goliards.