English and German Opera
English opera during 17th century
According to Willi Apel , the English opera evolved through the masque. Initially, it ran into difficulties due to the bias for stage events during the period of the English Commonwealth (1649-
Basically, the story of early opera in Germany is the history of Italian composers in the German courts, with the exception of "Daphne" by Heinrich Schutz (1627: the music has been lost). Italians were so influential that during the next 100 years even German composers liked to write in Italian style and Italian librettos. (J.J. Fux, J. A. Hasse, Gluck, Mozart). Hamburg was the only important opera "school". The main representative was Reinhard Keiser with clear effects on Handel, who wrote his first operas in Hamburg.
Willi Apel Harvard dictionary of music , second edition, eighth printing