Music in History

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early medieval period_ persons

early middle ages

Tutilo (850-915)

Born in Ireland, he was a Monk  songwriter poet, architect, painter, sculptor, engineer. He was educated in the monastery of St Gall and remained there as a monk.

Nokter Balbulus- Sequence

The term "Sequence" derives from the Latin "sequentia". It is a Chant or hymn which was sung or recited during liturgical celebration, like Eucharist. The Latin sequence, as an artistic form, has its origins to Christian hymns of  the 6th century. The term "sequence" was bestowed around the 10th century by Benedictine monk Notker Balbulus (840-912) who made the sequence  popular with his collection entitled "sequentiae" , which are part of his work "Liber hymnorum."
It is said that originally, "sequence" was called the Jubilus (melisma on the word "hallelujah") of a  Gregorian chant. Notker put  words in verse on this Melisma. Thus the term "sequence" refers to such texts and  hymns with rhyme and an accentual- syllabic verse. "accentual-syllabic verse"  refers to the  number of long- short syllables as well as  the intonation of words in a stanza). Sequences were  not so  frequent in the Renaissance

                                                      Guido d' Arezzo


Guido d' Arezzo.

Guido d' Arezzo.( circa 991-1050)
Benedictine monk and music theorist. He is credited with inventing the 5-line staff which replaced the neumatic notation. His  text entitled "micrologus" was the second most popular treatise on music during Medieval period, after the writings of Boethius. He invented  a teaching method for singers to learn quickly hymns of Gregorian chant in a short time. The names of the notes "ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la" are syllables  taken from the hymn Ut queant Laxis. Actually, each one of them  is  the first  syllable of each verse.
Ut queant laxis resonare fibris,
Mira gestorum famuli tuorum,
Solve polluti labil reatum,
Sancte Johanes
The note "ti" was added later.
It is also said that Guido invented the  so-called "hand of Guido," a widespread mnemonic system where the names of the notes are mapped to the fingers and palm of the hand. But this "hand" does not exist in his works or in his system for solmization. It is found for the first time in treatises of the 13th century. Until the 15th century it was called manus musicalis (hand of music). The name "Guido hand" appears in a treatise of the 15th century.
We do not know much about his life from 1028 to 1050.

Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179)

She was a Benedictine nun from Germany, polymath, writer, philosopher and composer. She was known as Sibyl of the Rhine. One of her musical  works entitled  "Ordo Virtutum" is  an early example of  liturgical  drama.
Hildegard lived in a time when women were forbidden to sing in church or in public. In contrast, isolated women, like nuns, were encouraged to compose and perform their music.
Hildegard believed that  human soul express itself  when coordinated with the celestial music of the spheres (celestial music), creating harmony with the body and song.

                              Hildegard von Bingen - O Tu Suavissima Virga

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