This is a term to refer to liturgical music of western church which was monophonic with free rhythm at this particular historical period. (Plain song /cantus planus) . Generally, liturgical music exists in all the churches of the Christian world which are divided into two areas. a) East Church: Armenian and Byzantine music, Coptic, Syriac. b) Western: Gallican, Mozarabic, Old Roman chant, Ambrosian chant, Gregorian chant.
Plainsong does not include Byzantine music.
The monophonic music, as opposed to polyphonic and homophonic music, consists of a melodic line without accompaniment or additional parts. It is the oldest type of music, the only one that was in use in antiquity and during early middle ages (Byzantine music, Gregorian chant). Trouveres also sang monophonic songs. "Monophony" was in dominance from ancient times to circa 13th century AD.
Byzantine music fall into three categories: hirmologikon, stichirarikon, papadikon.
a) hirmologikon. It is the oldest type and is thought to contain part of the music of the Greeks. It is very short and includes fast parts corresponding to one symbol per syllable. During first christian centuries, the rhythm was adapted to the text.
b) stichirarikon. Here, the melody is widened with respect to the syllable. It is not tied so closely to the text, thereby enabling the rhythm division in order to display the text ´s prosody (for example, strong and weak pulses correspond to the intonation of the text).
c) papadikon. In these later hymns a syllable may be extended to the entire musical phrase. Papadikon appeared in church music when liturgies became longer and more complicated.
The Byzantine Μusic notation was simply a memory aid in an oral tradition. The Ison created the so-
Some people suggest that pope Gregory the great introduced the "papadika" to the western christian church. They suggest that papadika are the ancestor of gregorian chant. Some others claim that Ambrosius was to introduce elements of Byzantine music in Western church in the 4th century. However, most of historians agree that Gregorian chant developed during the mid-
Ambrosian or MIlanese chant
It is the only surviving plainchant tradition besides the Gregorian to maintain the official sanction of the Roman Catholic Church. It is said that Saint Ambrosius, bishop of Milan during 374-
The Ambrosian modes took this name in his honor. They are the first four modes of Gregorian chant, that is: Dorian (D), Phrygian (E), Lydian (F), Mixolydian (G). As the time went by, church music became more complicated.
In 455 Rome falls from the Vandals (Germanic tribes). The preservation of knowledge and art passed entirely to the church. The Church is becoming an international center of power.
Inno di Sant'Ambrogio, Deus creator omnium
(old Roman chant)
This repertory is consisted of some graduales and antiphons dating between 1070 and 1250. It is believed that this old Roman oral tradition was in practice until it was replaced by the Gregorian chant. There are many theories about the origins of the old Roman and Gregorian chant. The dominant theory for the origins of both Chants suggests that the Franks brought the old Roman State north, in order to consolidate the ecclesiastical power and to strengthen their political ties with the Roman church. This mix of Roman and Frankish Chant created the Gregorian Chant.
Old Roman chant -
1)Willi Apel, Ηarvard dictionary of music second edition eighth printing
2)Christopher Headington, Η ιστορία της δυτικής μουσικής, μετάφραση Μάρκος Δραγούμης, εκδόσεις Gutemberg
3)Alberto Turco 8ο συνέδριο Associatione Internationale Studi di canto Gregoriano, Verona 25-
5) wikipedia the free encyclopedia, Jubilus, last modified on 1 November 2011, at 12:21
6)wikipedia the free encyclopedia, medieval music , last modified on 19 October 2012 at 13:43
7) Bικιπαίδεια, μεσαιωνική μουσική, τελευταία τροποποίηση 6 Αυγούστου 2012, 10:36